von Max Hecker, Verlag der Goethe-Gesellschaft, Weimar 1907. Stretched upon his back, he reposed as if asleep; profound peace and security reigned in the features of his sublimely noble countenance. [7] All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at early ages. [44], Goethe's botanical theories were partly based on his gardening in Weimar. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Der Prokurator Erzählung aus Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten (1795) In einer italienischen Seestadt lebte vorzeiten ein Handelsmann, der sich von Jugend auf durch Tätigkeit und Klugheit auszeichnete. Doch die Zeiten sind vorüber, steif geworden alle ... Weitere Zitate Genauer: das Grab von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in der Fürstengruft. Johann Wolfgang Goethe . [91] His non-fiction writings, most of which are philosophic and aphoristic in nature, spurred the development of many thinkers, including Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer, and Carl Jung. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre. [8], Goethe also became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. "[107][108] Goethe's Naturanschauer is in many ways a sequel to Diderot's interprète de la nature. [5] Nietzsche wrote, "Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and Montaigne, Goethe and Spinoza, Plato and Rousseau, Pascal and Schopenhauer. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy. [70][71]—that was the first remarkable Spinoza revival in history. Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. His father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time, especially languages (Latin, Greek, French, Italian, English and Hebrew). This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. In 1821 Goethe's friend Carl Friedrich Zelter introduced him to the 12-year-old Felix Mendelssohn. Thus...[not] the question, What are they for? "And yet you heard Mozart in his seventh year at Frankfurt?" On 14 October 1772 Goethe held a gathering in his parental home in honour of the first German "Shakespeare Day". For other uses, see, 18th/19th-century German writer, artist, and politician, In 1998, both of these sites, together with nine others, were designated a, Catharina was the daughter of Johann Wolfgang Textor, sheriff (. ), but this is disputed as Vogel was not in the room at the moment Goethe died. The conductor was Franz Liszt, who chose the date 28 August in honour of Goethe, who was born on 28 August 1749. [34] However, Goethe explained his use of Werther in his autobiography. In der deutschen Literaturgeschichte gilt Johann Wolfgang von Goethe als eine der bedeutensten Persönlichkeiten, die das Land vorzuweisen hat. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him have survived. Er schrieb Gedichte, Romane und Theaterstücke. [35] Epistolary novels were common during this time, letter-writing being a primary mode of communication. [90], Goethe had a great effect on the nineteenth century. Dezember 1789 in Weimar) erreichte das Erwachsenenalter. The two became close friends, and crucially to Goethe's intellectual development, Herder kindled his interest in Shakespeare, Ossian and in the notion of Volkspoesie (folk poetry). The phrase Goethe uses is "Mischmasch von Irrtum und Gewalt", in his "Zahme Xenien" IX. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer and statesman. Quelle: Goethe, Maximen und Reflexionen. During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. In 1823, having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the 74-year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed. [98] She praised Goethe as possessing "the chief characteristics of the German genius" and uniting "all that distinguishes the German mind. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him have survived. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. Karl Robert Mandelkow, Bodo Morawe: Goethes Briefe. The fact that Werther ends with the protagonist's suicide and funeral—a funeral which "no clergyman attended"—made the book deeply controversial upon its (anonymous) publication, for on the face of it, it appeared to condone and glorify suicide. What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and of principal importance, its total subjectivity: qualities that trailblazed the Romantic movement. Already at this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen. This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". Sein Vater Johann Caspar Goethe war Kaiserlicher Rat und hatte ein zu seiner stets fröhlichen, rund zwanzig Jahre jüngeren Ehefrau Catharina Elisabeth gegensätzliches Naturell. Later, a facet of its plot, i.e., of selling one's soul to the devil for power over the physical world, took on increasing literary importance and became a view of the victory of technology and of industrialism, along with its dubious human expenses. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. Goethe obtained a copy of the biography of a noble highwayman from the German Peasants' War. Novalis, himself a geologist and mining engineer, expressed the opinion that Goethe was the first physicist of his time and "epoch-making in the history of physics", writing that Goethe's studies of light, of the metamorphosis of plants and of insects were indications and proofs "that the perfect educational lecture belongs in the artist's sphere of work"; and that Goethe would be surpassed "but only in the way in which the ancients can be surpassed, in inner content and force, in variety and depth—as an artist actually not, or only very little, for his rightness and intensity are perhaps already more exemplary than it would seem". I laid my hand on his heart – there was a deep silence – and I turned away to give free vent to my suppressed tears. Zusammen mit Friedrich Schiller gilt er als der wichtigste Autor, der auf Deutsch geschrieben hat. The poem was written between 1772 and 1774 and first published in 1789 after an anonymous and unauthorised publication in 1785 by Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi. He also took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion. Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. [9] Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would later reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit. In 1919, the world premiere complete production of Faust was staged at the Goetheanum. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe heiratete im Jahre 1806 Christiane Vulpius, die er bereits im Jahre 1788 durch ihren Bruder einer Pockenerkrankung starb, noch His later spiritual perspective incorporated elements of pantheism (heavily influenced by Spinoza's thought),[64][66][75] humanism, and various elements of Western esotericism, as seen most vividly in part 2 of Faust. 60, 1832).[29]. Wolfgang Maximilian (genannt Wölfchen) galt als Lieblingsenkel Goethes. August 1749 in Frankfurt am Main Gestorben: 22. Carl Vogel: "Die letzte Krankheit Goethe's". For Goethe, his first ten years at Weimar could well be described as a garnering of a degree and range of experience which perhaps could be achieved in no other way. You will always find it more powerful and barbarous on the lowest levels of civilization. Die … [82] At the time of the French Revolution, he thought the enthusiasm of the students and professors to be a perversion of their energy and remained skeptical of the ability of the masses to govern. [42][43] As one of the many precursors in the history of evolutionary thought, Goethe wrote in Story of My Botanical Studies (1831): The ever-changing display of plant forms, which I have followed for so many years, awakens increasingly within me the notion: The plant forms which surround us were not all created at some given point in time and then locked into the given form, they have been given... a felicitous mobility and plasticity that allows them to grow and adapt themselves to many different conditions in many different places. Eine besonders beliebte und originelle Art und Weise, um zur Geburt zu gratulieren ist die bekannte Verse und Gedichte von Größen wie Goethe zu nutzen. [94][96] Goethe always spoke of Napoleon with the greatest respect, confessing that "nothing higher and more pleasing could have happened to me in all my life" than to have met Napoleon in person. He detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. The remaining year is largely undocumented, aside from the fact that he spent much of it in Venice. Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. During the course of his trip Goethe met and befriended the artists Angelica Kauffman and Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, as well as encountering such notable characters as Lady Hamilton and Alessandro Cagliostro (see Affair of the Diamond Necklace). Der Vater selbst war von Beruf Jurist. [25] During that time he also developed a deep emotional bond with the Polish pianist Maria Agata Szymanowska.[26]. [105] He said in Scientific Studies: We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. [72] Like Lessing and Herder, in many respects, Goethe was a devoted Spinozist. Goethe also had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe. [57], Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". The Faust tragedy/drama, often called Das Drama der Deutschen (the drama of the Germans), written in two parts published decades apart, would stand as his most characteristic and famous artistic creation. 1808 ... (Sie gebar fünf Kinder, von denen nur der älteste Sohn August am Leben blieb) Sohn: August, *1789, gest. der Gesellschaft auf Unverständnis, da Goethe mittlerweile dem Adelsstand angehörte, Christiane aber eine But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own. (More light! But it was not to last long. Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. After being translated into English by Charles Eastlake in 1840, his theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J. M. W. The elephant's skull that led Goethe to this discovery, and was subsequently named the Goethe Elephant, still exists and is displayed in the Ottoneum in Kassel, Germany. [106], Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot, whose work he translated and studied. He was against this reading of poetry. 1: Briefe der Jahre 1764–1786. ... Mit dem Wissen wächst der Zweifel. Alle ihre Kinder, mit Ausnahme von Johann Wolfgang und seiner 1750 geborenen Schwester Cornelia Friederica Christiana, starben früh. Goethe thus went to live in Weimar, where he remained for the rest of his life and where, over the course of many years, he held a succession of offices, becoming the Duke's friend and chief adviser. Nachdem Goethe 2 Jahre lang eine öffentliche Schule besuchte, wurde er von seinem Vater und einem Hauslehrer unterrichtet. Als Naturforscher kam er zu bedeutenden Erkenntnissen. Unmöglich scheint immer die Rose, Unbegreiflich die Nachtigall. I wished for a lock of his hair; but reverence prevented me from cutting it off. Eltern: Johann Caspar Goethe (1710 – 1782) Katharina Elisabeth, geb. [40] While not the only one in his time to question the prevailing view that this bone did not exist in humans, Goethe, who believed ancient anatomists had known about this bone, was the first to prove its existence in all mammals. In May 1772 he once more began the practice of law at Wetzlar. He would argue that Classicism was the means of controlling art, and that Romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not.[6]. März 1832 in Weimar Eltern: Jurist Johann Caspar Goethe (1710 bis 1782) und Katharina Elisabeth Textor (1731 bis 1808) Begraben: neben Friedrich von Schiller in der Weimarer Fürstengruft. Goethe was, however, the first to systematically study the physiological effects of colour, and his observations on the effect of opposed colours led him to a symmetric arrangement of his colour wheel, "for the colours diametrically opposed to each other ... are those which reciprocally evoke each other in the eye. Beide Kinder bekamen eine aufwändige Ausbildung. Vol. During convalescence, Goethe was nursed by his mother and sister. If an ever busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history, mythology and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I readily fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, and there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wuchs mit einer jüngeren Schwester in einem wohlhabenden Elternhaus in Frankfurt auf. And, between ourselves, I never hated the French, although I thanked God when we were rid of them. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus. [citation needed] Along with Schiller, he was one of the leading figures of Weimar Classicism. The intimate bond with von Stein lasted for ten years, after which Goethe abruptly left for Italy without giving his companion any notice. They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. Goethe's journey to the Italian peninsula and Sicily from 1786 to 1788 was of great significance in his aesthetic and philosophical development. Goethe, now in his seventies, was greatly impressed by the child, leading to perhaps the earliest confirmed comparison with Mozart in the following conversation between Goethe and Zelter: "Musical prodigies ... are probably no longer so rare; but what this little man can do in extemporizing and playing at sight borders the miraculous, and I could not have believed it possible at so early an age." 1782 (Kaiserlicher Rat ohne Amtsausübung) Mutter: Katharina Elisabeth Textor, *1731, gest. " Prometheus " is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, in which the character of the mythic Prometheus addresses God (as Zeus) in misotheist accusation and defiance. More importantly, however, the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann had provoked a general renewed interest in the classical art of ancient Greece and Rome. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, (born August 28, 1749, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died March 22, 1832, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist, considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. [64][65][66] He was one of the central figures in a great flowering of a highly influential Neo-Spinozism[67][68][69] which occurred in German philosophy and literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. [100] Matthew Arnold found in Goethe the "Physician of the Iron Age" and "the clearest, the largest, the most helpful thinker of modern times" with a "large, liberal view of life. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ist einer der bedeutendsten Repräsentanten deutschsprachiger Dichtung. (The Duke at the time was 18 years of age, to Goethe's 26.) und Alma Sedina (* 29.10.1827; † 29.09.1844). Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he quickly became interested in literature; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Homer were among his early favorites. [15] Several of his poems, like "Willkommen und Abschied", "Sesenheimer Lieder" and "Heidenröslein", originate from this time. Turner. Goethe embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic, and epic. He is considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. He had a lively devotion to theater as well and was greatly fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home; this is a recurrent theme in his literary work Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. Wolfgang Maximilian (genannt Wölfchen) galt als Lieblingsenkel Goethes. Seine Enkelin Alma starb im Alter von 16 Jahren an Typhus. [48] Goethe's work also inspired the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, to write his Remarks on Colour. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749-1832, deutscher Dichter) Wanderers Nachtlied Über allen Gipfeln Ist Ruh, In allen Wipfeln Spürest du Kaum einen Hauch; Die Vögelein schweigen im Walde. [32][citation needed], Goethe was fascinated by Kalidasa's Abhijñānaśākuntalam, which was one of the first works of Sanskrit literature that became known in Europe, after being translated from English to German.[33]. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. 2. edition. [78] August Wilhelm Schlegel considered Goethe "a heathen who converted to Islam. Although his literary work has attracted the greatest amount of interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science. said Zelter. By the time of his death, in order to gain a comprehensive view in geology, he had collected 17,800 rock samples. Aphorismen und Aufzeichnungen. His first acquaintance with Shakespeare's works is described as his personal awakening in literature.[12]. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832, deutscher Dichter, Schriftsteller, Naturforscher) Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science. From this milieu came Johann Georg Schlosser (who was later to become his brother-in-law) and Johann Heinrich Merck. Liebesgedichte von Goethe Schöne Winter- und Liebesgedichte. By 1820, Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. August 1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. His written account of these events can be found within his Complete Works. The short epistolary novel, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, or The Sorrows of Young Werther, published in 1774, recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide. und verstarb damit als letzter direkter Nachkomme. Ists möglich, daß ich, Liebchen, dich kose, Vernehme der göttlichen Stimme Schall! Suicide is considered sinful by Christian doctrine: suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church. The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Deutscher Schriftsteller, Künstler und Politiker Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), der größte deutsche Dichter und Denker, war ein Universalgenie. Textor (1731 – 1808) Geschwister: Cornelia Friderike Christiana Ehefrau: Christiane Vulpius (1765 – 1816) Kinder: von fünf Kindern überlebte nur Karl August Goethe war der berühmteste und bekannteste deutsche Dichter der Welt. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749-1832, deutscher Dichter) Gute Links. Christiane war ein Blumenmädchen, sie hat Blumen auf der Strasse verkauft. Eckermann closes his famous work, Conversations with Goethe, with this passage: The morning after Goethe's death, a deep desire seized me to look once again upon his earthly garment. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics. Lines from Faust, such as "Das also war des Pudels Kern", "Das ist der Weisheit letzter Schluss", or "Grau ist alle Theorie" have entered everyday German usage. Ihr Vater, ebenfalls Jurist, hielt als Schultheiß das höchste Amt im Frankf… Goethe admitted that he "shot his hero to save himself": a reference to Goethe's own near-suicidal obsession with a young woman during this period, an obsession he quelled through the writing process. großen Dichters und Denkers mehr. [86] The medievalism of the Heidelberg Romantics was also repellent to Goethe's eighteenth-century ideal of a supra-national culture.[87]. At this time, Goethe was acquainted with the court of Darmstadt, where his inventiveness was praised. Das Leben der Brüder wurde durch den Großvater geprägt, der sie überaus liebte; auf ihrem weiteren Leben lastete der verpflichtende Name. Homology, or as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire called it "analogie", was used by Charles Darwin as strong evidence of common descent and of laws of variation. The restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann: How could I write songs of hatred when I felt no hate? August and Ottilie had three children: Walther, Freiherr von Goethe (1818–1885), Wolfgang, Freiherr von Goethe [de] (1820–1883) and Alma von Goethe [de] (1827–1844). Winckelmann had not recognized the distinctness of the two styles. [41] In 1790, he published his Metamorphosis of Plants. In 1806, Goethe was living in Weimar with his mistress Christiane Vulpius, the sister of Christian A. Vulpius, and their son Julius August Walter von Goethe. Goethe's original draft of a Faust play, which probably dates from 1773–74, and is now known as the Urfaust, was also published after his death.[36]. (In later years Goethe would bypass this problem by periodically authorizing "new, revised" editions of his Complete Works. Grundschule "Johann Wolfgang von Goethe" Zwönitz.

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